Behavioral Sustainability Lab

    Jiaying Zhao, PhD, Associate Professor, Canada Research Chair (she/her)

Manuscripts in progress (available upon request)
    Luo, Y., Li, A., Soman, D., & Zhao, J. (under review). A meta-analytic cognitive framework of nudge and sludge.
    Larsen, V. J.*, Carriaga, R.*, Wething, H., Zhao, J.* & Hall, C. C. * (under review). Behavioral consequences and intervention of financial shocks. (joint first or senior authors)
    Burrowes, A., Babakaiff, C., & Zhao, J. (under review). Nudging employees to document client eligibility decisions.
    Yu, R. & Zhao, J. (under review). A weighted summation framework for conjunctive predictions.
    Dwyer, R., Palepu, A., Williams, C., & Zhao, J. (under review). Unconditional cash transfers reduce homelessness.
    Park, Y. R., Hallez, K., Kaur, S., Srinivasan, M., & Zhao, J. (under review). A framework for the psychology of poverty.
    Shah, A., K., Zhao, J., Mullainathan, S., & Shafir, E. (under review). A scarcity literature mischaracterized with an empirical audit.
    Hanson-Wright, B., Luo, Y., Dowlatabadi, H., & Zhao, J. (under review). How does personalized feedback on carbon emissions impact intended climate action?
    Cheng, J., Lavigne, K., Khangura,J., Chinchani, A., Rasheed, M., Woodward, B., Zahid, H., Zhao, J., Balzan, R., Ryder, A., Menon, M., & Woodward, T. (under review). Dimensions of beliefs without strong supporting evidence and reasons for holding them.
    Luo, Y. & Zhao, J. (under review). Using behavioral interventions to reduce single-use produce bags.
    Naito, R., Zhao, J., Naidoo, R., & Chan, K.M.A. (under review). Private and civic actions as distinct types of individual engagement for transforming the global wildlife trade.
    Drouin, O., Perez, T., Barnett, T.A., Ducharme, F., Fleegler, E.W., Garg, A., Lavoie, K.L., Li, P., Métras, M., Sultan, S., Tse, S.M., & Zhao, J. (under review). Impact of unmet social needs, scarcity and future discounting on adherence to treatment in children with asthma: Protocol for a prospective cohort study.
    Bochon, L., Dean, J., Rosteck, T., & Zhao, J. (under review). Nudging policymakers on gendered impacts of policy.
    Lalande, A., Patterson, K., Gadhari, N., MacNeill, A., & Zhao, J. (under review). Evaluating patient experience with food in a hospital-wide survey.

In press
    Soman, D., Zhao, J., & Datta, S. (in press). Using Cash Transfers to Build an Inclusive Society: A Behaviorally Informed Approach. University of Toronto Press.
    Dwyer, R., Stewart K., & Zhao, J. (in press). A comparison of cash transfer programs in the Global North and South. Using Cash Transfers to Build an Inclusive Society: A Behaviorally Informed Approach.

2022
    Luo, Y., Douglas, J., Pahl, S., & Zhao, J. (2022). Reducing plastic waste by visualizing marine consequences. Environment & Behavior, 54, 809-832.
    Naito, R., Zhao, J., & Chan, K. (2022). An integrative framework for transformative social change: A case in global wildlife trade. Sustainability Science, 17, 171–189.
    Adachi, K., Dowlatabadi, H., & Zhao, J. (2022). On the acceptance of intergenerational climate legacies: A comparison of Canada and Japan. PLOS Climate, 1(7), e0000048.
    Sörqvist, P., Volna, I., Zhao, J., & Marsh, J. (2022). Irregular stimulus distribution increases the negative footprint illusion. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 63, 530-535.
    Hardisty, D., White, K., Habib, R., & Zhao, J. (2022). Sustainable nudges for the wild: Recommendations from SHIFT. Behavioral Science in the Wild, (pp.153-169), University of Toronto Press. Toronto, ON.
    Wu, J., Hauert, C., Kremen, C., & Zhao, J. (2022). A framework on polarization, cognitive inflexibility, and rigid cognitive specialization. Frontiers in Psychology, 13:776891.
    Moon A., Zhao J., Peters, M. A. K., & Wu, R. (2022). Interaction of prior category knowledge and novel statistical patterns during visual search for real-world objects. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 7:21.
    McCunn, L., Gifford, R., & Zhao, J. (2022). Relating the Canadian Psychological Association’s position on the importance of psychological science in addressing climate change to cities and health. Cities and Health.
    Blau, W., Bond, H., Crete, E., Khung, D., Kuester, A., O'Riordan, T., Torres, G., & Zhao, J. (2022). Lessons from COVID-19 for climate change. A white paper at Springer Nature.
    Zhao, J. & Whitehead, L. (2022). A guaranteed basic income could end poverty, so why isn’t it happening? The Conversation. (Editor reviewed)

2021
    Sachdeva, S., Wu, J., & Zhao, J. (2021). The impact of scarcity on pro-environmental behavior in the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, 3:767501.
    Zhao, J., Woo, Y. P. & Whitehead, L. (2021). A research agenda to get more people out of poverty. Issues in Science and Technology. (Editor reviewed)
    Zhao, J., Naito, R., Luo, Y., & Deans, N. (2021). Getting everyone to act on climate change. SDG Action. (Editor reviewed)
    Deans, N., Naito, R., Luo, Y., & Zhao, J. (2021). The science behind collective climate action. Impakter. (Editor reviewed)
    Zhao, J. & Luo, Y. (2021). A framework to address cognitive biases of climate change. Neuron, 109, 3548-3551.
    Habib, R., White, K., Hardisty, D., Zhao, J. (2021). Shifting consumer behavior to address climate change. Current Opinion in Psychology, 42, 108-113.
    Luo, Y. & Zhao, J. (2021). Attentional and perceptual biases of climate change. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 42, 22-26.
    Callahan, M. M., Satterfield, T., & Zhao, J. (2021). Into the animal mind: Perceptions of emotive and cognitive traits in animals. Anthrozoös, DOI: 10.1080/08927936.2021.1914439
    McCunn, L., Gifford, R., Veitch, J. A., Arbuthnott, K., Zhao, J., Arnold-Schutta, P., Young, C., Jardine, N. (2021). Addressing climate change in Canada: The importance of psychological science. A Position Paper of the Canadian Psychological Association.
    Sachdeva, S. & Zhao, J. (2021). Distinct impacts of financial scarcity and natural resource scarcity on sustainable choices and motivations. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 20, 203-217.
    Yu, R. & Zhao, J. (2021). Association knowledge guides conjunctive predictions in novel situations. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp.1684-1690). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
    Wu, R., Zhao, J., Cheung, C., Natsuaki, M. N., Rebok, G., & Strickland-Hughes, C. M. (2021). Learning as an important privilege: A lifespan perspective with implications for successful aging. Human Development, 42, 22-26.

2020
    Echeverri, A., Karp, D. S., Frishkoff, L. O., Krishnan, J., Naidoo, R., Zhao, J., Zook, J., & Chan, K. M. A. (2020). Avian cultural services peak in tropical wet forests. Conservation Letters, e12763, https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12763
    Wynes, S., Zhao, J., & Donner, S. (2020). How well do people understand the climate impact of individual actions? Climatic Change, 162, 1521-1534.
    Mani, A., Mullainathan, S., Shafir, E., & Zhao, J. (2020). Scarcity and cognitive function around payday: A conceptual and empirical analysis. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 5, 365-376.
    Yu, R. & Zhao, J. (2020). The presence of joint predictors generates conjunctive predictions. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 27, 1279-1290.
    Zhao, J., Azad, M. B., Burton, C., Crooks, V. A., Dawson, J., Ford, A. T., Kaida, A., Krishnaswamy, A., Kuok, C., Mah, C. L., McTaggart, M., Moehring, A., Robert, D., Schulte-Hostedde, A., Sparling, H., De Vera, M. A., & Patel, T. R. (2020). Canadian Science Meets Parliament: Building relationships between scientists and policymakers. Science and Public Policy, scz062, doi.org/10.1093/scipol/scz062
    Echeverri, A., Karp, D. S., Naidoo, R., Tobias, J. A., Zhao, J., & Chan, K. M. A. (2020). Can avian functional traits predict cultural ecosystem services? People and Nature, 2, 138-151.

2019
    Yu, R. Q., Cooke, M., Zhao, J., & Snyder, J. (2019). Adult neurogenesis promotes efficient, nonspecific search strategies in a spatial alternation water maze task. Behavioural Brain Research, 376: 112151.
    Callahan, M. M., Echeverri, A., Ng, D., Zhao, J., & Satterfield, T. (2019). Using the Phylo Card Game to advance biodiversity conservation in an era of Pokémon. Palgrave Communications, 5:79.
    Luo, Y. & Zhao, J. (2019). Motivated attention in climate change perception and action. Frontiers in Psychology, 10:1541.
    Echeverri, A., Naidoo, R., Karp, D. S., Chan, K. M. A., & Zhao, J. (2019). Iconic manakins and despicable grackles: Comparing cultural ecosystem services and disservices across stakeholders in Costa Rica. Ecological Indicators, 106, 105454.
    Yu, R., Luo, Y., Osherson, D., & Zhao, J. (2019). Perception of multi-dimensional regularities is driven by salience. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 81, 1564-1578.
    Lempert, R., Zhao, J., & Dowlatabadi, H. (2019). Convenience, savings, or lifestyle? Distinct motivations and travel patterns of one-way and two-way carsharing members in Vancouver, Canada. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 71, 141-152.
    Luo, Y., Zelenika, I., & Zhao, J. (2019). Providing immediate feedback improves recycling and composting accuracy. Journal of Environmental Management, 232, 445-454.
    Yu, R. & Zhao, J. (2019). Statistical learning generates implicit conjunctive predictions.Proceedings of the 41st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1247-1253). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
    Luo, Y. & Zhao, J. (2019). Statistical learning creates implicit subadditive predictions.Proceedings of the 41st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2221-2227). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

2018
    Wynes, S., Nicholas, K., Zhao, J., & Donner, S. (2018). Measuring what works: Quantifying greenhouse gas emission reductions of behavioural interventions to reduce driving, meat consumption, and household energy use. Environmental Research Letters, 13, 113002.
    Zelenika, I., Moreau, T., Lane, O., & Zhao, J. (2018). Sustainability education in a botanical garden promotes environmental knowledge, attitudes, and willingness to act. Environmental Education Research, 24, 1581-1596.
    Yu, R. & Zhao, J. (2018). Implicit updating of object representation via temporal associations. Cognition, 181, 127-134.
    Luo, Y. & Zhao, J. (2018). Statistical learning creates novel object associations via transitive relations. Psychological Science, 29, 1207-1220.
    Luo, A. & Zhao, J. (2018). Capacity limit of ensemble perception of multiple spatially intermixed sets. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 80, 2033-2047.
    Wu, D., Lenkic, P., DiGiacomo, A., Cech, P., Zhao, J., & Kingstone, A. (2018). How does the design of waste disposal signage influence waste disposal behavior? Journal of Environmental Psychology, 58, 77-85.
    Echeverri, A., Karp, D. S., Naidoo, R., Zhao, J., & Chan, K. M. A. (2018). Approaching human-animal relationships from multiple angles: A synthetic perspective. Biological Conservation, 224, 50-62.
    Zelenika, I., Moreau, T., & Zhao, J. (2018). Toward zero waste events: Reducing contamination in waste streams with volunteer assistance. Waste Management, 76, 39-45.
    Whitman, J., Zhao, J., Roberts, K., & Todd, R. M. (2018). Political orientation and climate concern shape visual attention to climate change. Climatic Change, 147, 383-394.
    Yu, R. & Zhao, J. (2018). Object representations are biased toward each other through statistical learning. Visual Cognition, 26, 253-267.
    Yu, R., Osherson, D., & Zhao, J. (2018). Alternation blindness in the representation of binary sequences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 44, 493-502.
    Zhao, J. & Tomm, B. (2018). Psychological responses to scarcity. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Yu, R., Gunn, J., Osherson, D., & Zhao, J. (2018). The consistency of the subjective concept of randomness. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 7, 906-916.
    Shah, A. K., Zhao, J., Mullainathan, S., & Shafir, E. (2018). Money in the mental lives of the poor. Social Cognition, 36, Special Issue: The Status of Status: Vistas from Social Cognition, 4-19.
    DiGiacomo, A., Wu, D., Lenkic, P., Fraser, B., Zhao, J., & Kingstone, A. (2018). Convenience improves composting and recycling rates in high-density residential buildings. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 61, 309-331.
    Namazu, M., Zhao, J., & Dowlatabadi, H. (2018). Nudging for responsible carsharing: Using behavioral economics to change transportation behavior. Transportation, 45, 105-119.

2017
    Zhao, J. (2017). Influencing policymakers. Nature Climate Change, 7, 173-174.
    Zhao, J. & Tomm, B. (2017). Attentional trade-offs under resource scarcity. Augmented Cognition: Enhancing Cognition and Behavior in Complex Human Environments, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 10285, 78-97.
    Echeverri, A., Chan, K. M. A., & Zhao, J. (2017). How messaging shapes attitudes toward sea otters as a species at risk. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 22, 142-156.
    Echeverri, A., Callahan, M. M., Chan, K. M. A., Satterfield, T., & Zhao, J. (2017). Explicit not implicit preferences predict conservation intentions toward endangered species and biomes. Public Library of Science (PLoS ONE), 12(1), e0170973.
    Zhao, J. & Luo, Y. (2017). Statistical regularities guide the spatial scale of attention. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 79, 24-30.
    Wu, R. & Zhao, J. (2017). Prior knowledge of object associations shapes attentional templates and information acquisition. Frontiers in Psychology, 8:843. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00843
    Wu, R. & Zhao, J. (2017). The “item” as a window into how prior knowledge guides visual search (commentary). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 40, e162, p.49.
    Whitman, J., Zhao, J., & Todd, R. M. (2017). Alternation between different types of evidence attenuates judgments of severity. Public Library of Science (PLoS ONE), 12(7): e0180585.
    Luo, Y. & Zhao, J. (2017). Learning induced illusions: Statistical learning creates false memories. In G. Gunzelmann, A. Howes, T. Tenbrink, & E. J. Davelaar (Eds.), Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, (pp. 774-779). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
    Yu, R., Osherson, D., & Zhao, J. (2017). Alternation blindness in the perception of binary sequences. In G. Gunzelmann, A. Howes, T. Tenbrink, & E. J. Davelaar (Eds.), Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, (pp. 3609-3614). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
    Tomm, B. & Zhao, J. (2017). Scarcity impairs online detection and prospective memory. In G. Gunzelmann, A. Howes, T. Tenbrink, & E. J. Davelaar (Eds.), Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, (pp. 3350-3355). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

2016
    Zhao, J. & Yu, R. (2016). Statistical regularities reduce perceived numerosity. Cognition, 146, 217-222. (Exp1 data, Exp2 data, Exp3 data)
    Mole, C. & Zhao, J. (2016). Vision and abstraction: An empirical refutation of Nico Orlandi’s non-cognitivism. Philosophical Psychology, 29, 365-373.
    Tomm, B. & Zhao, J. (2016). Scarcity captures attention and induces neglect: Eyetracking and behavioral evidence. In A. Papafragou, D. Grodner, D. Mirman, & J.C. Trueswell (Eds.), Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1199-1204). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
    Luo, Y. & Zhao, J. (2016). Statistical learning creates novel object associations via transitive relations. In A. Papafragou, D. Grodner, D. Mirman, & J.C. Trueswell (Eds.), Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 984-989). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

2015
    Yu, R. & Zhao, J. (2015). The persistence of attentional bias to regularities in a changing environment. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 77, 2217-2228.
    Moreau, T., Lane, O., Zhao, J., Geselbracht, D., & Lewis, P. (2015). Sustainable Communities Field School: Innovative environmental education for businesses. In Z. Irwin, C. Hobson, R. P. Selvam, L. Derewnicka (Eds.), Proceedings of the BGCI 9th International Congress on Education in Botanic Gardens (pp. 147-149). Surrey, UK: Botanic Gardens Conservation International.

2014
    Zhao, J., Hahn, U., & Osherson, D. (2014). Perception and identification of random events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40, 1358-1371.
    Zhao, J., Karbowicz, D., & Osherson, D. (2014). Implicit learning of stimulus regularities increases cognitive control. Public Library of Science (PLoS ONE), 9(4), e93874.
    Hall, C. C.*, Zhao, J.*, & Shafir, E.* (2014). Self-affirmation among the poor: Cognitive and behavioral implications. Psychological Science, 25, 619–625. (*equal author contribution)
    In the news: The Economist, APS, Huffington Post, Vancouver Sun
    Zhao, J. & Osherson, D. (2014). Category-based updating. Thinking & Reasoning, 20, 1-15.

2013
    Mani, A., Mullainathan, S., Shafir, E., & Zhao, J. (2013). Response to Comment on "Poverty impedes cognitive function". Science, 342, 1169.
    Mani, A.*, Mullainathan, S.*, Shafir, E.*, & Zhao, J.* (2013). Poverty impedes cognitive function. Science, 341, 976-980. (*equal author contribution)
    In the news: New York Times, Associated Press, Washington Post, NBC, Reuters, Huffington Post, Globe and Mail, Vancouver Sun, TIME Magazine
    Zhao, J., Al-Aidroos, N., & Turk-Browne, N. B. (2013). Attention is spontaneously biased toward regularities. Psychological Science, 24, 667-677.
    In the news: Psychology Today

2012
    Zhao, J., Crupi, V., Tentori, K., Fitelson, B., & Osherson, D. (2012). Updating: Learning versus supposing. Cognition, 124, 373-378.
    Zhao, J., Crupi, V., Tentori, K., Fitelson, B., & Osherson, D. (2012). Updating: Learning versus supposing. In N. Miyake, D. Peebles, & R. P. Cooper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1233-1237). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

2011
    Zhao, J., Ngo, N., McKendrick, R., & Turk-Browne, N. B. (2011). Mutual interference between statistical summary perception and statistical learning. Psychological Science, 22, 1212-1219.
    In the news: Press release from APS, ScienceDaily
    Zhao, J. & Turk-Browne, N. B. (2011). Incidental encoding of numerosity in visual long-term memory. Visual Cognition, 19, 928-955.
    Zhao, J. & Osherson, D. (2011). Detecting deviations from randomness. L. Carlson, C. Hölscher, & T. Shipley (Eds.), Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1019-1024). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

2010
    Zhao, J. & Osherson, D. (2010). Updating beliefs in light of uncertain evidence: Descriptive assessment of Jeffrey’s rule. Thinking & Reasoning, 16, 288-307.
    Zhao, J. & Osherson, D. (2010). Descriptive assessment of Jeffrey's rule. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2530-2535). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
    Zhao, J. & Turk-Browne, N. B. (2010). The perception of number from long-term memory. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1240-1245). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

2009
    Zhao, J., Shah, A. K., & Osherson, D. (2009). On the provenance of judgments of conditional probability. Cognition, 113, 26-36.
    Zhao, J., Shah, A. K., & Osherson, D. (2009). On the provenance of judgments of conditional probability. In N.A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 298-302). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Before 2009
    Zhao, J. & Costello, F. J. (2008). Computational modelling of switching behaviour in repeated gambles. Artificial Intelligence Review, 27, 209-222.
    Xia, F., Wang, H., Fu, X., & Zhao, J. (2005). An XML-based implementation of multimodal affective annotation. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, 3784, 535-541.